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对外汉语教师资格考试

儒森对外汉语教师资格考试

 
 
 

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想成为优秀对外汉语教师的不得不看30篇文章(三)  

2012-01-19 11:02:08|  分类: 对外汉语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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  以下文章由 国际汉语教师资格证培训考试中心 上海儒森汉语收集整理。

想成为优秀对外汉语教师的不得不看30篇文章(三) - 西瓜小猫 - 儒森汉语文化交流中心
 

 

  把汉语作为汉语来教,跟把英语或日语作为外语来教,遇到的问题不会相同;把汉语教给英国人,或者阿拉伯人,或者日本人,或者韩国人,遇到问题也不会相同;在国外教外国人学习汉语跟国内教外国学生汉语,情况也不完全相同。

  在议论语法问题时,首先一定要分清语法概念和一般思维概念。不论对具体事物还是抽象事物,也不论说什么语言,各个民族、各个国家的人都有思维概念。虽然这些概念在说不同语言的民族之间不尽相同,但却也有很多相同之处,由于这些相同之处才使语言之间的翻译成为可能。这些思维概念有许多在一种语言中是用词汇手段表现出来的,在另一种语言中也是用词汇手段表现的。很多具体事物的名称都属此类。但是wrote这个词,不要上下文,什么都不要,只看这个词本身就知道它的意思是“写”,而且它的语法意思是“过去时”。这过去时的概念是通过改变字母io来体现的,再在看汉语的“写”本身就无法说明是现在还是过去。“我昨天在家写信,一天没出门”这句话是通过词汇手段“昨天”来说明“写”发生在过去。这句话如译成英语,尽管也有“昨天”字样,“写”也必须译成wrote或其它更恰当的时态而不能译成write。“他天天都写好多信"没有上下文、不知道语言环境,这句话的时间就很难说。译成英语既可译成现在时也可译成过去时。所以汉语的写没有语法概念的“时”。人们对于时间的思维上的概念和语法中的“时”的概念有密切的关系,但究竟是两码事。现在我们就以时间作例来说明思维中的概念和语法中概念的关系。

 我们先看看英语语法专家是怎样论述英语动词中的“时(tense)”这一范畴的。翻开R.Quirk等著的《A Grammar of Contemporary English》中,看看在Time,tense and aspect这一节是怎样讲的。书上说time (时间)人类共有的概念,分为过去、现在、将来三段。所谓共有的意思是超出语言的意思(extra-linguistic).它们不依赖任何语言的语法而存在。只是在运用语言时我们利用语言特有的(language-specitic)时(tense)的范畴去表述这些时间的概念。由此可见“时间”是人类思维范畴,而“时”才是语法范畴。更值得注意的是这本书认为英语有两个“时(tenses)":present tense(现在时)和past tense(过去时)。注意,两个而不是三个!因为从动词本身的词形变化可以看出的,只有现在时和过去时。至于将来的时间,Quirk的标题是:Some means of expressing future time。下面他说英语没有和现在时、过去时相当的明显的将来时(future tense).只有几种表示将来时间(future time)的方法。一种是用情态动词shallwill加上动词的不定式(infinitive),另一种是be going to 加上不定式还有用现在进行时、简单现在时以及其他几种表示方法。至于aspect(态或体)则是和动词有关的另一语法范畴,而英语有两种“态”:完成态(perfective aspect)和进行态(progrsssive aspect)。“时”和“态”总是结合在一起的,于是就形成下列几种时态结合:present perfect(现在完成)、past perfect(过去完成)、present progressive(现在进行)、past progressive(过去进行)、present perfect progressive(现在完成进行)、past perfect progressive(过去完成进行)。

 Aspect是语法范畴,因为不论是完成态或进行态都是用语法手段表现的。完成态必有past participle(过去分词),如written(写),而进行态必有present participle(现在分词),如writing

 现在我们拿这种标准来考察一下汉语的动词。根据目前大多数语法学家的意见,汉语动词有态的语法范畴,而且有三种态:完成态、持续态、经历态,分别由“了”、“着”、“过”来表示,比如

1.我们昨天买东西才去吃晚饭的。

2.我们想买东西再去吃晚饭。

3.我记得上次他发病那天正下大雪。

4.这会儿正下大雪,别出去了。

5.我从来没见这个人。

6.那天是我第一次见他,以前从来没见他。

了、着、过确实是语法手段,因为这三个助词在动词后只表示完成、持续、经历而不表示任何一般实词所各自表示的事物概念。但是这三个助词和时间无关,既不表示过去,也不表示将来。例1的过去时间是由“昨天”说明的。例2从整个句子看是将来的完成态,但是从语法手段看,和例1毫无区别,都是“买了东西”。例3的“下着大雪”是过去某一时间的持续。例4的“下着大雪”是现在的持续。例5的“没见过”是说现在以前都没见过,而例6的“没见过”是过去某一天以前没见过。这六句话如果译成英语,12的“买东西”的时态不会相同。英语必须区分过去、现在以至将来、但是汉语从语法上说没有过去、现在、将来,因之也就没有像英语那样的现在完成态、过去完成态、现在进行态、过去进行态。

The Chinese as a language to teach, with the English or Japanese as a foreign language to teach, the problems will not be the same; to teach English in Chinese, or Arabs, or Japanese, or Korean, not a problem the same; to teach foreigners to learn Chinese in foreign countries to teach foreign students with Chinese domestic situation is not exactly the same.

  
Talking about grammar issues, first we must distinguish between the concept of grammatical concepts and general ideas. Regardless of the specific things or abstract things, not what language discourse, various ethnic groups and countries who are thinking of the concept. Although these concepts in different languages ??that vary between nations, but there are many similarities, these similarities make it possible to translate between languages. Many of these ideas in the concept of a language is shown with the word means, but also in another language terms used in the means of performance. Many specific names of things fall into this category. But wrote the word, not the context, what are not, just look at the word itself know what it means is "write", and its syntax means "past tense." This concept is the past tense by changing the letter i to o to reflect, and then looking at the Chinese language, "writes" itself can not explain the present and past. "I write at home yesterday, the day did not go out," This sentence is through word means "yesterday" to illustrate the "write" occurred in the past. This sentence as translated into English, although there are "Yesterday," the words, "write" must also wrote or translated into other more appropriate when the state can not be translated into write. "He wrote many letters every day," no context, do not know the language environment, the time of this statement is hard to say. Now translated into English can also be translated into the past tense. So there is no syntax to write Chinese concept of "when." For the time people thought the concept and syntax of the "time" is closely related to the concept, but how are two different things. Now we have the time for example Ming Siwei the concepts and syntax of the concept of relationship.

 
Our experts look at how English grammar English verbs in the discourse "when (tense)" this category. R. Quirk waiting to turn the "A Grammar of Contemporary English" in, take a look at the Time, tense and aspect in this section is how to speak. The book says time (time) the concept of humanity is divided into past, present and future three sections. The so-called common language meaning beyond the meaning of (extra-linguistic). They do not rely on the syntax of any language exists. Only in the use of language we use language-specific (language-specitic) time (tense) to express the scope of the concept of time. Thus "time" category of human thinking, and "when" is grammatical categories. It is worth noting that this book is that English has two "time (tenses)": present tense (present tense) and past tense (past tense). Note that two instead of three! Because the verb itself inflection can be seen, only the present tense and past tense. As for the future time, Quirk's title is: Some means of expressing future time. Here and now he does not speak English, the past quite obvious in the future when (future tense). Only a few said that in the future time (future time) method. One is the soul modal verb shall or will with the infinitive verb (infinitive), the other is still be going to with the infinitive with the present progressive, simple present tense, and several other representations. As for the aspect (state or body) and the verb is related to other grammatical categories, and English, there are two "states": the completion of state (perfective aspect) and the state (progrsssive aspect). "When" and "state" always together, so they form a combination of the following types of tenses: present perfect (now complete), past perfect (pluperfect), present progressive (for now), past progressive (in the past for ), present perfect progressive (Present Perfect), past perfect progressive (for the last completed).

 
Aspect is a grammatical category, as either state or states are complete with syntax means performance. Complete state must have past participle (past participle), as written (write), and the state must present participle (present participle), such as writing.

 
Now we get to look at this standard of Chinese verbs. According to the current views of the majority of grammarians, Chinese state verb grammatical category, but there are three states: the completion of state, continuous-state, through state, from "a", "a", "off" to indicate, for example

1 Yesterday we bought something to eat before dinner.

2 We want to buy something and then eat dinner.

3 I remember the last day of his disease is under the snow.

4 moment is under the snow, do not go out.

5 I have never seen this person.

6 That is the first time I see him, never seen him before.

A, a, had indeed grammatical means, because these three particle after the verb that only complete, continuous, rather than that experienced by the respective content words that any general concept of things. But these three particle and independent of time, not that the past does not mean that in the future. Example 1 is the last time "yesterday" description. Example 2 is the whole sentence to see the completion of the future state, but the means to see from the syntax, and Example 1 without distinction, are "bought something." Example 3 of the "under the snow," continued past a certain time. Example 4 "under the snow" is now ongoing. Example 5 of the "not seen" is never seen that before now, and Example 6 of the "not seen" is not seen before the last day. The six words if translated into English, 1 and 2 "buy stuff" when the state is not the same. English must distinguish between past, present and future, but the Chinese from the syntax that is not in the past, present and future, there is no consequent kind of like the English present perfect state, past state, will now proceed to state, in the past the state.

 Collected: International Chinese Language Teacher Training & Examination Center - Ru Sen Chinese

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